CONSTRUCTEURS | MANUFACTURERS

0-9
3Xtrim Aircraft Factory

A
AAA : Advanced Amphibious Aircraft (1988-?)
AAA : American Affordable Aircraft - États-Unis
AAC : Amphibian Airplanes of Canada - Canada
Aachen Flugzeugbau (en)
AAMSA (1971-1984)
AAI Corporation (1985-)
AAS : Ateliers Aéronautiques de Suresnes (en)
AASI Advanced Aerodynamics and Structures Inc.
Abaris Aircraft Corporation (2001- )
Abbott (en)
ABC Motors
ABHCO (en)
A-B Helicopters
Abrams Air Craft
ABS Aircraft (en)
ACAZ : Ateliers de Construction Aéronautique de Zeebruges
ACBA : Aéro Club du Bas Armagnac
Ace : Ace Aircraft Manufacturing Company (en) (1929- )
Aceair
Aces High Light Aircraft
Acme : Acme Aircraft Corp (Acme Aircraft Co) (1929-?)
ACME : Air Craft Marine Engineering (en) (1954-?)
AC Mobil 34 (en)
Acro Sport
ACT (en)
AD : Admiralty (British Admiralty Air Department)
AD Aerospace
AD-Y
ADA : Aeronautical Development Agency (en)
Adam : Roger Adam
Adam Aircraft Industries (1998-)
Adams Industries (en)
Adams-Toman (en)
Adams-Wilson Helicopters
Adaro (en)
ADC Aircraft (en)
Ader, Clement
ADI : Aircraft Designs Inc
Adler : Adlerwerke vorm. Heinrich Kleyer (en)
Advanced Aeromarine
Advanced Aircraft Corp (en)
Advanced Aviation
Advanced Soaring Concepts
AEA : Aerial Experimental Association
AEG : Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft
Aerauto (1950-1953)
Aereon
Aerfer (1955-1969) > Aeritalia
Aerial Distributors (en)
Aerial Service Corporation (en)
Aériane (en)
Aeritalia (1969- ) > Alenia Aeronautica
Aermacchi (1913-)
Aero > Aero Design and Engineering Company > Aero Commander
Aero : Aero Vodochody(Tchequie)
Aero : Aero Ltd (Pologne)
Aero Adventure Aviation
Aero Engineers Australia (1978-)
Aero Best
Aero Boero
Aero Bravo
Aero-Cam
Aerocar : Aerocar (Colorado)
Aerocar International
Aérocentre
Aero-Club der Schweiz (en)
Aerocomp
Aero Composites
Aero-Craft
Aero Design
Aero Designs (en)
Aero-Diffusión
Aeronca
Aeros
Aerospatiale : Société nationale industrielle aérospatiale (1970-1999)
Aérospatiale Matra (en) (1999-)
Agusta
Aichi : Aichi Kokuki KK
AIDC : Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation (en)
Airbus Group
Airbus
Airbus Helicopters
Airco : Aircraft Manufacturing Company
Airspeed Ltd (1931-1951)
Albatros Flugzeugwerke
Alcatel Space
Alcatel Alenia Space
Alenia Aeronautica
Alon (en)
AltiGator
American Aviation (en)
AMX : AMX International
Antonov
Arado
Armstrong-Whitworth
Astrium
Atlas Aircraft Corporation
ATR : Avions de Transport Régional - Aerei da Trasporto Regionale (1981-)
Auster (1939-1961)
AVE : Advanced Vehicle Engineers (en)
Avcraft (en)
AviaBellanca : AviaBellanca Aircraft Corporation (1983-)
Aviat
Aviation Traders (en)
Avibras (en)
AVIONAV1 (tn)
Avro
Avro Canada (en) (1945-1962)

Bachem

BAE : BAE Systems

BAMC (en)

Bayerische Flugzeugwerke

Beagle : Beagle Aircraft

Beechcraft

Beecraft (en)

Bell : Bell Aircraft Corporation (1935-1960)

Bell Helicopter : Bell Helicopter Textron (1960-)

Bellanca : Bellanca Aircraft Company (1927-1983)

Beriev : Beriev Aircraft Company (1934-)

Best Off

Blackburn : Blackburn Aircraft Ltd

Blériot

Blohm + Voss

Boeing (1916-), Boeing Commercial Airplanes (en), Boeing Integrated Defense Systems, Boeing Australia (en)

Bölkow

Bombardier Aéronautique

Boulton Paul (en) (1915-1961)

Brandenburg

Brantly (en)

Breda

Bréguet (1911-1971)

Brewster (en) (1932-1942)

Bristol Aeroplane Company

British Aerospace (1977-1999)

British Aircraft Corporation

Britten-Norman

Bücker Flugzeugbau

Burgess (en) (1911-1916)

 

C

Call Aircraft Company (1939 - 1959)

CANT (Cantieri Riuniti dell'Adriatico)

Caproni

Caudron (1909 - 1933)

Centre spatial de Cannes - Mandelieu

Cessna

Champion

Chantiers aéronavals Étienne Romano (1929-1937)

Chilton (en)

Chrislea (en)

Cirrus Design

Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation (CAC)

Comper (en)

Consolidated Aircraft Corporation

Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA

Convair

Culver

Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company (1916?-1929)

Curtiss-Wright (1929-)

 

D

Deutsche/ Daimler-Benz/ DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG (DASA)

Dassault Aviation

de Havilland, de Havilland Canada, de Havilland Australia (en)

Denel Aerospace Systems

Dewoitine

Dornier

Douglas (1920-1967)

Druine

Dynali Helicopter Company

 

E

Entreprise de Construction Aéronautique (ECA, Algérie)

Eclipse Aviation

Edgley

Embraer

Entwicklungsring-Süd (EWR) (en)

English Electric

Enstrom

ERCO aka Ercoupe (en)

Eurofighter GmbH

Evektor-Aerotechnik

 

F

Fairchild, FairchildDornier, M7 Aerospace

Fairey

Farman

Fiat Avio

Fieseler

Focke-Wulf

Focke-Achgelis

Fokker

Folland (en)

Ford (1925-1945?)

Forney

Fuji

Funk Aircraft

 

GEFA-FLUG GmbH (1980-)

General Aircraft Factory

General Dynamics

Gloster Aircraft Ltd.

Gothaer Waggonfabrik (GWF)

Grahame-White (en)

Grob Aircraft

Groupe Latécoère

Grumman (1930-1994)

Gulfstream Aerospace (1978-)

GippsAero

 

H

Hamburger Flugzeugbau GmbH (HFB)

Handley Page

Harbin Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation (HAMC)(1952-)

Hawker (en) (1920-1934)

Hawker Siddeley Company (1934-1977)

Hawker Pacific Aerospace (en) (1980-)

Heinkel

Helio (en)

Henschel

Hiller

Hindustan Aeronautics (HAL)

Hughes

Hurel-Dubois (1947 - )

Hunting Aircraft

 

I

IAR (en) (of Romania)

Ikarus

Iliouchine

Interceptor Corporation

Israel Aircraft Industries (1953-)

 

J

Junkers

 

K

Kaman

Kamov

Kawanishi

Kawasaki

Keuthan Aircraft (en)

Koolhoven (en)

 

Lake Aircraft (en)

Lancashire

Latécoère

Laverda

Lavotchkine

Lisunov

Lockheed Martin (1996-)

Loening Aeronautical

Luscombe

Luftverkehrsgesellschaft 

Luton (en)

M

M7 Aerospace

Martin (1912-1916, 1917-1961)

Martin-Baker

Maule Air

Martinsyde (en)

McDonnell-Douglas

Messerschmitt

Messerschmitt-Bölkow

Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB)

Meyers Aircraft Company

Miassichtchev

Mikoyan

Mil

Miles (en)

Mitsubishi (voir aussi Mitsubishi Zero)

Mooney

Morane

Murphy Aircraft Mfg. Ltd. (en)

 

Nakajima

NAMC (en)

Nieuport (1909 - 1937)

Nord-Aviation (1954 - 1970)

North American Aviation (1928-1966)

Northrop (1926-1994)

Northrop Grumman (1994-)

Nomad

 

O 

OMA Sud

 

P

Panavia

Parnall (en)

Partenavia (en)

Percival Aircraft Company

Piaggio Aero

Pilatus Aircraft

Piper

Pitts special

Potez

PZL (Panstowe Zaklady Lotnicze)

 

R 

Raytheon

Reaction Engines Limited

Rearwin (en)

Republic (1939-?)

Robin (1969-)

Robinson Helicopter

Rockwell

Rogozarski (de)

Rolls-Royce

Rotorway (en)

Royal Aircraft Establishment

Royal Aircraft Factory

Rutan Aircraft Factory

Ryan Aeronautical Company

 

Saab

Saunders-Roe

Scaled Composites

Schweizer (en)

Scottish Aviation (en)

SEPECAT

Short Brothers

SIAI-Marchetti

Siebel

Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation

Slingsby

Smiths Aerospace (en)

Socata

Société nationale des constructions aéronautiques du sud-est

Société nationale des constructions aéronautiques du sud-ouest

Société d'études aéronautiques

Société des Avions Michel Wibault

Soko

Sonex

Sopwith

SPAD

Spartan

Stearman (en) (1927-1934)

Sud-Aviation

Sukhoï (1939-)

Sun Lake Aircraft (en) (Florida)

Supermarine

Swearingen

 

T 

Taylorcraft

Technovia

Techspace Aero

Thales Alenia Space

Thomas-Martin

Thorp Aero (en)

Trago Mills (en)

Travelair

Tupolev

 

U 

Udet-Flugzeugbau

Utva (1937-)

 

VEF

Venture Light Aircraft (en)

Vereinigte Flugtechnische Werke GmbH (VFW)

Vickers

Vickers-Armstrongs

Volaircraft

Vought

 

WACO

Weser Flugzeugbau GmbH

Westland Aircraft et Westland Helicopters

Wright Aeronautical (1919-1929)

Wright Company (1909-1916)

Wright-Martin (en) (1916-1919)

 

Y 

Yakovlev

Yokosuka Naval Arsenal (en)

 

Z 

Zlin


DROIT AÉRIEN  - ABRÉVIATIONS

 

A/C :  aircraft (avion)

AD :  airworthiness directive (opération technique imposée par les services officiels)

AFIS :  aerodrome flight information service

AIP :  Aeronautical Information Publication (Publication d'Information Aéronautique)

AMC :  Acceptable Means of Compliance: Moyens acceptables pour les Etops

AP :   autopilot, cf PA

ATIS :  Automatic Information Service

BS :   Bulletin de Service

CC :   conservateur de cap

CDN :   certificat de navigabilité

CNRA :   certificat de navigabilité restreint (construction amateur)

CNRAC :   certificat de navigabilité restreint d'aéronef de collection

CA :   certificat of airworthiness, cf CDN

CS :   constant speed, hélice à vitesse constante (pas variable)

DG :   directionnal gyro, cf CC

ETOPS:  EXtended-range Twin-engine Operational Performances Standards (au-delà de 60 minutes au-dessus de la mer)

FAA :  Federal Aviation Authority (Administration de l'aviation civile américaine)

FD :  Flight Director, cf DV

GPS :   Global Positioning System (positionnement par satellite)

GRP :   glass reinforced plastic (Cellule en matériaux composites)

GV :   grande visite (cellule)

HDV :  heures de vol

HT :   heures totales

IFR :   Instrument Flight Rules (Règles de vol aux instruments)

ILS :   Instrument Landing System (système d'atterrissage aux instruments)

IMC :   Instrument Meteorological Conditions (Conditions météorologoques de vol aux instruments)

IPP :  instructeur de pilotes professionnels

ITP :  instructeur vol à voile (1er niveau)

ITT :   instructeur de pilotes privés

ITV :  instructeur vol à voile (2ème niveau)

JAR :  Joint Airworthiness Requirements

Logs :   carnets de route et moteur

METAR :  Meteorological Aerodrome Report (Message d'observations d'aérodrome)

 

 

NOTAM :  Notice To Air Men (Messages d'information aux pilotes)

OH :   overhaul, cf RG

OVC :  Overcast (ciel complètement couvert)

PA :  pilote automatique

PL :   pilote de ligne

PSV :  pilotage sans visibilité

QRI :   qualification de radiotéléphonie internationale (PP)

QRRI :   qualification restreinte de radiotéléphonie internationale (TT)

QSR :   quality Survey Reports (Procédure interdisant la livraison d'un aéronef équipé d'un composant défectueux)

RC :   radio-compas (ou ADF)

RG :   révision générale (moteur)

RG :   retractable gear (train rentrant)

Single :   monomoteur

SMOH :   since major overhaul (depuis dernière RG)

SN :   since new (depuis neuf)

 

S/N:  serial number

TA :  travail aérien

Taildragger: train classique

TBO :  time before overhaul (temps moteur entre RG), potentiel moteur

TC :   turbo-charged engine (moteur turbocompressé)

TTH :  pilote privé hélicoptère

Tip-tanks : réservoirs marginaux

TT :   pilote privé

TT :   temps total (moteur ou cellule)

TTAF :  total time airframe (temps cellule)

TTSN :   total time since new (temps total depuis neuf)

Twin :   bimoteur

VA :   visite annuelle 

VAC :  Visual Air Charts (cartes de terrains) 

VASI : Visual Approach Slope Indicator (indicateur visuel de pente d'approche)

VFR :   Visual Flight Rules (Règles de vol à vue)

VHF:  very high frequency

VMC :   Visual Meteorological Conditions (conditions météorologiques de vol à vue) 

VNE: Velocity Note to Exceed

VOR :   Visual Omni Range (radio-phare omnidirectionnel à haute fréquence) 

XPDR :  Transpondeur


The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) (pronounced /aɪˈkeɪ.oʊ/; French: Organisation de l'aviation civile internationale, OACI), is a specialized agency of the United Nations. It codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth.[2] Its headquarters are located in the Quartier International of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The ICAO Council adopts standards and recommended practices concerning air navigation, its infrastructure, flight inspection, prevention of unlawful interference, and facilitation of border-crossing procedures for international civil aviation. ICAO defines the protocols for air accident investigation followed by transport safety authorities in countries signatory to the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation. The Air Navigation Commission (ANC) is the technical body within ICAO. The Commission is composed of 19 Commissioners, nominated by the ICAO's contracting states, and appointed by the ICAO Council.[3] Commissioners serve as independent experts, who although nominated by their states, do not serve as state or political representatives. The development of international Standards And Recommended Practices is done under the direction of the ANC through the formal process of ICAO Panels. Once approved by the Commission, standards are sent to the Council, the political body of ICAO, for consultation and coordination with the Member States before final adoption. ICAO is distinct from other international air transport organizations, like the International Air Transport Association (IATA), a trade association representing airlines; the Civil Air Navigation Services Organisation (CANSO), an organization for Air navigation service providers (ANSPs); and the Airports Council International, a trade association of airport authorities. 

 

CODES PAYS DE L'O.A.C.I.

AP Pakistan

A2 Botswana

A3 Tonga Friendly Islands

A40 Oman

A5 Bhutan

A6 United Arab Emirates

A7 Qatar

A9C Bahrain

B China

B-H Hong-Kong

B China-Taiwan

C Canada

CC Chile

CN Morocco

CP Bolivia

CS Portugal

CS Macao

CU Cuba

CX Uruguay

C2 Nauru

C3 Andorra

C5 Gambia

C6 Bahamas

C9 Mozambique

D Germany

DQ Fuji

D2 Angola

D4 Cape Verde Island

D6 Comoros

EC Spain

EI Eire

EK Armenia

EL Liberia

EP Iran

ER Moldova

ES Estonia

ET Ethiopia

EW Belarus

EX Kyrgyzstan

EY Tajkistan

EZ Turkmenistan

E3 Eritrea

F France

G Great Britain

HA Hungary

HB Switzerland

HC Ecuador

HH Haiti

HI Dominican republic

HK Colombia

HL Korea

HP Panama

HR Honduras

HS Thailand

HV Vatican

HZ Saudi Arabia

H4 Solomon Islands

I Italy

JA Japan

JU Mongolia

JY Jordan

 

 

J2 Djibouti

J3 Grenada

J5 Guinea Bissau

J6 ST.Lucia

J7 Dominica

J8 St.Vincent & grenadines

LN Norway

LV Argentina

LX Luxembourg

LY Lithuania

LZ Bulgaria

N USA

OB Peru

OD Lebanon

OE Austria

OH Finland

OK Czech Republic

OM Slovakia

OO Belgium

OY Denmark

P Korea

PH Netherlands

PJ Netherlands Antilles

PK Indonesia

PP Brazil

PZ Suriname

P2 Papua New Guinea

P4 Aruba

RA Russia

RDPL Laos

RP Philippines

SE Sweden

SP Poland

ST Sudan

SU Egypt

SX Greece

S2 Bangladesh

S5 Slovenia

S7 Seychelles

S9 Sao Tome & Principe

TC Turkey

TF Iceland

TG Guatemala

TI Costa Rica

TJ Cameroon

TL Central African Republic

TN Congo Brazzaville

TR Gabon

TS Tunisia

TT Chad

TU Ivory coast

TY Benin

TZ Mali

T2 Tuvalu

T3 Kiribati

T7 San Marino

T9 Bosnia-Herzegovina

UK Uzbekistan

UN Kazakhstan

UR Ukraine

VH Australia

 

VN Vietnam

VP-A Anguilla

VP-B Bermuda

VP-C Cayman Island

VP-F Falkland Island

VP-G Gibraltar

VP-L British Virgin Island

VP-M Montserrat

VQ-T Turks & Caicos island

VT India

V2 Antigua & Barbuda

V3 Belize

V4 St.Kits & Nevis

V5 Namibia

V6 Micronesia

V7 Marshall Islands

V8 Brunei  

XA/XB/XC/ Mexico

XT Burkina Faso

XU Cambodia

XY Myanmar

YA Afghanistan

YI Iraq

YJ Vanuatu

YK Syria

YL Latvia

YN Nicaragua

YR Romania

YS El Salvador

YU Yugoslavia

YV Venezuela

Z Zimbabwe

ZA Albanie

ZK New Zealand

ZP Paraguay

ZS South Africa

Z3 Macedonia

3A Monaco

3B Mauritus

3C Equatorial Guinea

3D Swaziland

3X Guinea

4K Azerbaijan

4L Georgia

4R Sri-Lanka

4X Israël

5A Libya

5B Cyprus

5H Tanzania

5N Nigeria

5R Madagascar

5T Mauritania

5U Niger

5V Togo

5W Samoa

5X Uganda

5Y Kenya

6O Somalia

6V Senegal  

6Y Jamaica

 

 

7O Yemen

7P Lesotho

7Q Malawi

7T Algeria

8P Barbados

8Q Maldives

8R Guyana

9A Croatia

9G Ghana

9H Malta

9J Zambia

9K Kuwait

9L Sierra Leone

9M Malaysia

9N Nepal

9Q Congo Kinshasa

9U Burundi

9V Singapore

9XR Rwanda  

9Y Trinidad & Tobago


Aircraft maintenance checks

Aircraft maintenance checks are periodic inspections that have to be done on all commercial/civil aircraft after a certain amount of time or usage; military aircraft normally follow specific maintenance programmes which may or may not be similar to those of commercial/civil operators. Airlines and other commercial operators of large or turbine-powered aircraft follow a continuous inspection program approved by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in the United States, or by other airworthiness authorities such as Transport Canada or the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). Under FAA oversight, each operator prepares a Continuous Airworthiness Maintenance Program (CAMP) under its Operations Specifications or "OpSpecs".[2] The CAMP includes both routine and detailed inspections. Airlines and airworthiness authorities casually refer to the detailed inspections as "checks", commonly one of the following: A check, B check, C check, or D check. A and B checks are lighter checks, while C and D are considered heavier checks.

A check

This is performed approximately every 400-600 flight hours or 200–300 cycles (takeoff and landing is considered an aircraft "cycle"), depending on aircraft type.[3] It needs about 50-70 man-hours and is usually on the ground in a hangar for a minimum of 10 hours. The actual occurrence of this check varies by aircraft type, the cycle count, or the number of hours flown since the last check. The occurrence can be delayed by the airline if certain predetermined conditions are met.

B check

This is performed approximately every 6-8 months. It needs about 160-180 man-hours, depending on the aircraft, and is usually completed within 1–3 days at an airport hangar. A similar occurrence schedule applies to the B check as to the A check. However, B checks may also be incorporated into successive A checks, i.e.: Checks A-1 through A-10 complete all the B check items.

C check

This is performed approximately every 20–24 months or a specific amount of actual flight hours (FH) or as defined by the manufacturer. This maintenance check is much more extensive than a B check, requiring a large majority of the aircraft's components to be inspected. This check puts the aircraft out of service, and the aircraft must not leave the maintenance site until it is completed. It also requires more space than A and B checks. It is, therefore, usually carried out in a hangar at a maintenance base. The time needed to complete such a check is at least 1–2 weeks and the effort involved can require up to 6,000 man-hours. The schedule of occurrence has many factors and components as has been described, and thus varies by aircraft category and type.

D check

This is by far the most comprehensive and demanding check for an airplane. It is also known as an IL or "heavy maintenance visit" (HMV). This check occurs approximately every six years. It is a check that more or less takes the entire airplane apart for inspection and overhaul. Even the paint may need to be completely removed for further inspection on the fuselage metal skin. Such a check can generally take up to 50,000 man-hours and 2 months to complete, depending on the aircraft and the number of technicians involved. It also requires the most space of all maintenance checks, and as such must be performed at a suitable maintenance base. The requirements and the tremendous effort involved in this maintenance check make it by far the most expensive, with total costs for a single D check in the million-dollar range.

Because of the nature and the cost of such a check, most airlines — especially those with a large fleet — have to plan D checks for their aircraft years in advance. Often, older aircraft being phased out of a particular airline's fleet are either stored or scrapped upon reaching their next D check, due to the high costs involved in comparison to the aircraft's value. On average, a commercial aircraft undergoes three D checks before being retired. Many maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) shops claim that it is virtually impossible to perform a D check profitably at a shop located within the United States. As such, only a few of these shops offer D checks. Given the time requirements of this check, many airlines use the opportunity in order to also make major cabin modifications on the aircraft, which would otherwise require an amount of time that would have to put the aircraft out of service without the need for an inspection. This may include new seats, entertainment systems, carpeting, etc.


Maintenance Review Board (mrb-us)

In the United States, initial aircraft maintenance requirements are proposed in a Maintenance Review Board (MRB) report report based on Air Transport Association (ATA) publication MSG-3 (Maintenance Steering Group – 3rd Task Force). Modern transport category airplanes with MSG-3-derived maintenance programs employ usage parameters for each maintenance requirement such as flight hours, calendar time, or flight cycles. Maintenance intervals based on usage parameters allow more flexibility in scheduling the maintenance program to optimize aircraft utilization and minimize aircraft downtime.